Hagia Sophia Grand Mosque is situated in the area Fatih of district Istanbul, Turkey. It is one of the most important mosque in Turkey, because of its its historical significance.
The building of Hagia Sophia trace back to the Byzantinian Empire. It was built by Emperor Justinian the first between 532 to 537 A.D in Constantinople. It was built as a Christian cathedral and was one of the biggest church in the christendom. It was designed by Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles and was a masterpiece of Byzantinian architecture. It is 82 meters in length and its height is 56 meters.
As a Church:
Initially, Hagia Sophia was a cathedral of Greek orthodox from 537 A.D. to 1204 it was made Roman cathedral and remain so from 1204 to 1261. Again, in 1261 it was made Greek orthodox cathedral and remained so till 1453.
As a Mosque:
In May 1453, the great Ottomon Sultan, Sultan Muhammad Fatih captured Constantinople. After capturing the city, he performed friday prayer and Khutba in the Hagia Sophia and thus officially converted Hagia Sophia into a mosque.
Sultan Bayezid, Ottomon Sultan, built an additional minaret, which got destroyed in 1509 earthquake. Later on, in the mid 16th century they were replaced by two more minarets.
During the reign of Sultan Suleiman, an Ottomon sultan also known by the name Suleiman the Magnificent, all the part depicting any thing related to christianity and Byzantinian emperors were plaster coated.
The building was renovated in the reign of Ottomon sultan Selim the second by the great Ottomon architect and earthquake engineer Mimar Sinan.
Similarly, Sultan Murad the third, Sultan Ahmed the third and Sultan Mehmud the frist also made many changes in the building during their reigns.
However, its renovation on a very large scale was done by Sultan Abdulmejid the first, also Ottomon Sultan. He assigned this task to be be supervised by Swiss-Italian brothers Gaspare and Giuseppe Fossati.
In 1935, a secular Turkish field marshal, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk converted the mosque Hagia Sophia into a museum and did many change in this regard.
In July 2020, due to the untiring efforts of president Tayyeb Erdogan, the precious state of the mosque Hagia Sofia was reinstated and on friday 24th of July 2020, after 86 years, Friday prayer was offered in this mosque. The Khateeb held the ceremonial sword during the khutba as was done during the Ottomon reign. Many people has criticised this action but holding the sword in left hand means victory and at the same time putting right hand on the back side of the sword means peace, that all non-muslims will be fully protected.
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