Mechanism of synthesis of hormones refers to how the hormones are synthesized in our body. There are two mechanisms of synthesis of hormones;
- Fixed membrane receptor mechanism,
- Mobile receptor mechanism.
- Fixed membrane receptor mechanism:
Only water soluble hormones follow this mechanism for the synthesis. The hormones bind to a specific receptors on membrane of the target cell. As the binding completes, the “hormone receptor complex” is formed.
The formation of this complex activates the enzyme known as “adenylate cyclase”. It will then convert the ATP into cyclic AMP. The cAMP activates the protein kinase, its function is the formation of protein phosphate. Which combines with the ATP and ADP is released.
The cAMP, after performing its function will degrade in the presence of enzyme called “phosphodiesterase”.
- Mobile receptor mechanism:
The mobile receptor mechanism is for water insoluble or steroid hormones. Here the hormones are lipids soluble, so they can cross the cell membrane by the process of diffusion.
The hormones then bind to their receptor, the receptor hormones are present in the cytoplasm. So the binding occurs, forming a “steroid hormone receptor complex”.
It has high affinity towards the DNA which is present in the nucleus. So, this complex thus enters the nucleus and binds to DNA. The DNA transcribes into messenger RNA (mRNA) which is single stranded and has the complex.
This mRNA then goes out to the cytoplasm towards the ribosomes (i.e; rough endoplasmic reticulum) through nuclear pores. Which is the factory of protein synthesis, so the mRNA is translated into proteins.
Their (steriods) response is quick as they bind to the DNA. They are also long lasting in their effect.
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