Microscope and its Types

Microscope and its Types, Microscope is an instrument that is used for viewing small organisms or objects that are too small to be seen through naked eye. Work in the microscope had already started in microscope and mainly lens makers were involved in its making. However, Galileo Galilie in 1609 perfected the first microscope ever. Today, the microscope is in a very advanced stage and it has various types.

There are four languages that is 4 x, 10 x, 100 x and 1000 x. x indicates the eye piece. The magnification power of all microscopes is different. Human naked eye can differentiate two points at 0.2 mm at least, not less than this.

Light microscope:

Normally, light or compound microscope is used i school and college level observations. Light is a crucial thing in case of light microscope. In light microscope the specimen must be dyed or stained. Therefore, other microscopes are also used besides light microscope because certain characters can not be seen after staining. The reason for this is that stains are basically chemicals and when a specimen is treated with it, it can damage certain characters. For example; certain spirochetes can not be stained and if they are stained their size shrinks. So such specimen are observed by dark microscope.

Fluorescent microscope:

Fluorescent microscope has 2 light sources, that is; ultra violet (UV) light and normal light. The UV light is used where the specimen can not be stained. This UV light source gives fluorescent to the specimen (DNA or RNA etc) and thus make it visible, which are not visible under conditions other than these.

Face contrast microscope:

In very simple words face contrast microscope works on the basis of differences in densities. When the light ray is introduced to the specimen, the differences in the refractive indexes are noted before and after passing through the specimen. This type if microscope enables a person to see living organisms also.

Electron microscope:

In electron microscope, instead of light, electrons emission is used. The electrons generate magnetic field and the image can be seen on the screen.

It has more resolution power than all other microscopes. The images in this type can be seen on the screen. There is no concept of slides and instead grid is used and a small holder to hold the grid.

It further has two types, namely; transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope.

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