Sultan Muhammad Fateh- The Big Eagle, Sultan Muhammad Fateh was born on 30th March 1432, in the city of Edrine. He was the 7th Ottomon Sultan and the third and youngest son of Sultan Murad the third.
He was very weak from his birth. When he grew up he was one of the most stubborn boys of his age. Due to his nature, his father never liked him and expected the least from him in favour of their family’s legacy. Sultan Murad the third loved his second son Sultan Alaodin very dearly. After the death of his elder son, Sultan Ahmad, he appointed his Sultan Alaodin as the governor of Amasya. When the tribal head, Khizar Pasha, killed Sultan Alaodin Sultan Murad appointed Sultan Muhammad Fatih as the governor of Amasya. Sultan Murad then left all the government and related issues, signing peace treaties with the crusaders and other countries. At that time Sultan Muhammad Fatih was only 12 years old.
Sultan Muhammad Fatih defeated a crusader attack led by John Hunyadi while the Sultan was only 12 years. When the king of Hungary broke the truce with the muslims, he wrote in a letter to his father to lead the Ottomon army saying “IF YOU ARE THE SULTAN THEN COME LEAD YOUR ARMY, IF I AM THE SULTAN I ORDER YOU TO COME LEAD MY ARMY”. This wise decision of Sultan Muhammad Fatih lead the Ottomons to victory. Sultan Murad again took the charge of Ottomon Empire and further training and education of Sultan Muhammad Fatih was started.
Sultan Muhammad Fatih was encouraged to conquer Constantinople by his teacher and mentor Sheikh Shams-ud-din, by teaching him Hadith of Ahmad bin Hambal (R.A). After the death of his father, Sultan Muhammad Fatih became the Sultan at the age of 19 years and started planning for the conquest of Constantinople. He was really obsessed with it and on the other hand the rest of the World rejoiced considering him a worthless and weak opponent. In the past, several attempts had been made by the muslims to conquer Constantinople but what made Sultan Muhammad Fatih successful was his strategy. He signed certain peace treaties, opened trade routes to ensure the safety of Ottomon Empire and developed the weaponry to a very high level.
In the starting first 40 day he couldn’t succeed and was really disappointed but then due to his mentor’s encouragement he conquered Constantinople. The conquest of Constantinople lead to the conquest of many other countries, like; Serbia, Morea, Trebizond, Bosnia, Anatolia, Albania etc.
After his conquest of Constantinople, he wrote to the Pope that they are free to preach and practice their religion within his Empire. He gave a full fledg freedom to the people of different believes to follow their religion without any fear in the limits of peace. He guaranteed their safety in every aspect.
He then expanded his expedition to Italy but there he fell terribly sick. At the age of 49 years, he died. Some historians think he was poisoned by his own son Sultan Bayazed but there are no firm evidences to prove it. The death of Sultan Muhammad Fatih was celebrated by his enemies saying that “the big eagle has died”.
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